In the early 14th century the Malatesta family donated several properties in the city of Rimini to the Servants of the Virgin, who built the first church on this site. A few years later the friars decided to enlarge it, and one of the sides of the rebuilt church can still be seen along Corso d'Augusto. It had a single nave, with several chapels and works of art. The apse had three chapels, of which the central one was larger. The right-hand chapel was built by the Agolanti family, the arms of which can be seen on a pilaster on the side of the church, in the mid-1300's.
Between 1774 and 1777 the church and monastery were renovated to designs by the Bolognese architect Gaetano Stegani (1678-1777), and Antonio Trentanove of Rimini collaborated as a plasterwork modeller.
In 1798 the order of the Servites was suppressed, and the monastery passed into the hands of the Dominicans, who had been forced to leave their previous monastery at San Cataldo. The Dominicans brought with them several works of art, but they were also definitively suppressed in 1799.
Since 1806 the church has been the parish church of Santa Maria in Corte.
In 1855 the parish priest, Don Ugo Maccolini, instituted the Charitable Institution of the Rosary, and with the funds collected he was able to reconstruct the façade of the church in 1894 to designs by Giuseppe Urbani (1861-1937), rebuild the upper part of the bell-tower and decorate the interior of the church, with gilt-work by Luigi Samoggia from Bologna.