Since the sixth century B.C. Covignano Hill, full of woods and springs, was the seat of worship around the water sources, often considered curative. It is, perhaps, the case of Villa Ruffi hole, whose materials can be found at the Museum of Rimini.
On the hill, from the fifth century BCE, a nucleus of votive materials was gathered such as the stipe of the Villa Ruffi. Discovered in 1890, then dispersed throughout the antiquities market and today documented in the Museum via copies, the “stipe” [a group of votive objects found together at a sacred site] attests to a cult dedicated to a warrior god and to a goddess (the Mother Goddess, the Good Goddess or the Goddess of Fortune?), as well as the custom of purification rituals tied to water. The heterogeneity of the materials sketches a place of encounter between a predominant Umbrian presence and an eloquent Etruscan influence open to contact with Magna Graecia and Greece itself.
If the votive deposit delineates the natural framework typical of places of cult-worship outside of cities in Romagna between the sixth and seventh centuries, then the terracotta antefix with a female bust, which decorated the eaves of a roof, would document (if one accepts its provenance from San Lorenzo in Monte) architectural structures built in the fifth century in the wake of the Etruscan encounter.
During the imperial period, the hill became the custodian of the cults of Hercules and Sylvanus. The devotee turned to the former, expressive of the labours of humankind, in part for the therapeutic quality tied to water. This mythical hero accompanied the history of the city from the fifth century BCE, the epoch which gave form to a now-lost bronze statuette, to the imperial age, for which he was the protagonist of the votive dedication of Quintus Pullienus Marcus, testimony to the selection of the hill as a place sacred to him.
The hill still retains the springs that feed the source Galvanina: artefacts recovered from the excavation of the ancient Roman fountain and accommodation, including vases, terracotta pipes, and a beautiful head of Roman Augustan age preserved in the small exhibition hall inside of Galvanina spa. Also around the hill slopes there are the water catchment supplying the city aqueduct (Monte La Cava).
Colle di Covignano is part of Route IV - Via Arretina